An Overview Of The African-American Experience
European mariners brought black Africans to America in the middle of the 1500s as slaves. This forced movement was the first in American history. But the slave trade wasn't unique to Europe or Africa. The 8th century was the time when Moorish merchants traded people as merchandise throughout the Mediterranean. A lot of West Africans also had slaves. Slaved West Africans were often prisoner of war, criminals or the lowest-ranking members of their caste system.
The capture and sale of Africans to American slave markets were barbaric and, often, deadly. Two of the five West African captives died on the way to the Atlantic seacoast and were then sold to European slavers. On the slave ships they were chained under decks in coffin-shaped racks. A third of them drowned at sea.
They were frequently sold to owners in America who wanted them to work in plantations as workers. The owners of slaves could be harshly punished for slaves. They could also sell family members to separate families.
Despite the hardships the slaves were able to establish an identity that was strong and distinct. On plantations, all adults looked after all children. Although they risked separation, slaves often married and kept strong family ties. Introduced to Christianity and then forming their own customs of worship. You may get more details on visit by browsing black entrepreneurs website.
Spirituals, the music of worship, represented the endurance of slaves and religious beliefs. The lyrics of slaves were often altered by slaves of spirituals to carry the message of freedom or to express their appreciation for their resistance.
Over time, African culture enriched much of American music, theater, and dance. African music and rhythms were later incorporated into Christian hymns, as well as European marches. The banjo was originally the African stringed instrument. The blues sound is simply a blend of African and European musical scales. Vaudeville was partly an extension of song and dance forms that were first performed by black street performers.
The Abolition Act and Civil War
In the 17th and 18th centuries, certain blacks were granted freedom, gained property, and gained access to American society. A lot of them moved to the North, where slavery, although still legal, was not as much of an issue. Both slaves and free African Americans made important contributions to the economy of the North and infrastructure by working on roads, canals and constructing cities.
Frederick Douglass knew that slavery was not the South's burden to carry on its own. Agriculture based on slaves in the South was the backbone of the North's industrial economy. Douglass challenged his Northern audience to join the fight against Southern slavery. Douglass posed the question "Are the great ideals of natural justice and freedom of the political that are embodied in the Declaration of Independence extended to us?" "What is the meaning of the Fourth of July for an American slave?"
As the Civil War began, many Northern blacks joined the fight for the Union. Some people expressed surprise at how fiercely black troops fought. However, black soldiers were fighting for more than just the restoration of the Union. They were fighting to liberate their people.
Repair and effect
To ensure that the slaves were released, Northern troops remained in South following the fall of Confederacy. Blacks set up their own churches and schools as well as bought land and elected themselves to office. In 1870, 22 African Americans were represented in Congress.
The Great Migration North
From the 1890s onwards the majority of blacks began moving North. Numerous factory jobs were created by the war of 1914. The 1920s saw strict new laws significantly reduced European immigration. The decrease in immigration led to an industrial workforce shortage in the Northern cities. Despite the fact that they were still separated the southern blacks started to move northward in increasing numbers. Young black men were eager to take non-skilled positions in meat packing factories or steel mills and at auto assembly lines in Chicago, Omaha, and Detroit.
Black workers have certainly contributed to the improvement of Northern cities. The indoor plumbing, gas heating, and nearby schools awaited many new arrivals from the rural South. They were also subject to discrimination.
However, black urban culture thrived. Musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, and King Oliver brought their music north from New Orleans. Jazz pioneers like these created their mark in Chicago's upscale urban setting by using modern recording techniques and upgraded instruments, which made them famous in the Roaring '20s.